Greece is Europe’s highest level of seismic activity, which is a new and diverse field of geology. Earthquakes are popular and have influenced Greek civilization and culture. The Titanic, subterranean powers have shaped several special and interesting geological characteristics, producing rough mountain ranges and narrow, rustic valleys. Michael Oslan published excellent resource about mountains geology.
The Greece and Peloponnesis format
Two hundred million years ago, the region that would have been Greece was stuck between the ancient supercontinents of Pangaea and Laurasia beneath the Tethys ocean. Calciferous aquatic species died and sunk back to the sea during the triassic and cretaceous periods, eventually becoming dense dolomite and limestone deposits.
When these two supercontinents turned to each other the whole Tethys Ocean was steadily and irresistibly stressed. The immense tension created by this slow squeezing deformed the earth’s surface, allowing the sedimentary rocks to rise and buckle gradually. The parent calcareous and sandstone metamorphosed into marble and quartzite, respectively, extreme heat and strain.
The large region of elevation reaches from the Alps to the mountains of Iran, all of which are very new, geologically speaking. These tectonic platforms are diverse and fluid border regions; Greece comprises the Hellenic plate, steadily stretching north-easterly and south-westward. This microplate extends through the descending African platform to the southeast and the Turkish platform to the east.
The underlying geology is highly complex, and a number of horsts and grabens have been produced with the spread Hellenic plate. These form the backbone of the region, forming breathtaking mountains and steep valleys. Continuous kneading and pressing of the basement produced high levels of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region, which affected the underlying structure of Greek culture and history.
For example, in Thera (Santorini), the volcanic eruption of 1644 BC devastated Minoan culture on Crete. Ancient Sparta was levelled in 464, and the first Peloponnesian war was brought against Athens in the wake of this catastrophe. More recently, in 1986 Kalamata suffered severe damage, which demanded the complete rebuilding of the town.
The format and the geology of the everyday mountains
The complex uplifting of the entire Eastern Mediterranean has created the inspirational Peloponnese Mountains and a complex network of intertwined fault lines is crossing the continent. The progressive deformation of the Hellenic plate has produced several localized defects within the peninsula, which slip and shake continuously. The Taygetos and Parnonas are major horsts, with deep grabs on both sides. The powerful range of the Taygetos is sandwiched with two failures, triggering the great tremors in the region.
Rocks types in daygets
The Taygetos mountains have an unusual rock formation, mostly of calcareous and dolomite, created when it was below the Tethys ocean owing to its tumultuous geological past. Quartz veins are incorporated within the matrix, and many quartz related crystals, including citrine and amethyst, are found in the field.
The mountains of Parnona include Lapis Lacedaemonium on the other side of the Evrotas Valley, an uncommon form of serpentine porphyry found only in the village of Krokees. This semi-precious stone was one of the main exports to Ancient Sparta, and was commonly used by the Romans for decorating their villas and public buildings.