A geological survey documents geologically important characteristics in a geographical region. They may also apply to a federal department that has geological knowledge to support the prosperity and health of the individual nation for use in geoscience studies. Examples include: Australia Geoscience, Canada Geological Survey, and the United States Geological Survey.
In order to perform surveys, there are a wide number of techniques, and the methods used depends on a number of factors, including the area to be covered; the depth of the land to register; the types of features to be documented and more.
The methods of survey can be classified into two broad categories: exceptional surveys and invasive surveys. Extraordinary geological surveys analyze geological characteristics on Earth – i.e. characteristics that are apparent as you step across the earth. Intrusive surveys are much more nuanced and aim at the underlying characteristics.
Extrusive survey techniques are often easier than invasive and mostly require a straightforward walk-over survey, in which the surveyor observes rock formations such as outcrops, crevasses, sinkholes and more.
Intrusive techniques can be very costly and very sophisticated technology can be used to finish. In several instances, the survey should cover areas many miles below Earth’s atmosphere. Machine-driven boreholes, remote sensing, satellite imaging and aerial photography can be invasive approaches. Read more information about basic Geology terms.
What are they doing?
Surveys have many purposes; they are also some of the most important kinds of surveys we use.
Geological and land surveys are commonly used by mining companies and they rely on them to figure out where to dig their next mine site. Mining firms will normally employ a geological and geological surveyor to perform a geological survey or a region of land suspected of being an ideal mine site. The geological survey shows them whether the raw materials are below the soil or not.
These surveys are also used to determine whether people should be aware of any geological risks. They will help minimize natural disaster damage.
Intrusive surveys tell us the kinds of rocks below the surface that may support a number of purposes. For example, some rocks and rock formations may suggest that there are underground reserves of water – which in areas with water scarcity can be really valuable.
Geological Survey of the United States
The USGS is a U.S. federal department. Nearly every nation in the world has its own survey that provides detailed information and statistics on the country’s geography, including where its natural resources are situated and the natural threats that affect its territories.
The survey department is broad and is split in four categories: geology, geography, hydrology and biology, each with a smaller region.
The Earthquake Hazards Program is an example of one of the fields where the Geological Survey is extremely important to the Americans. The Geological Survey data were used by the Earthquake Hazards Network to track earthquake activity worldwide.
The U.S.G.S. also has a branch that carries out astrogeology studies in space. They are also working on a Strategic Volcanic Early Warning System to enhance early detection of the 169 active volcanoes in the United States.