Geology is the study of earth and its formation and composition. In geology, we find two types of evidence for evidence of earth changes: fossils and rock fragments. The fossil evidence is usually found in rocks or coral reefs. Rock fragments consist of fossils and shells of organisms that have died and sunk to the bottom of the ocean or other bodies of water. Evidence of earth changes, on the other hand, comes from the strata of the earth, which are layers of sedimentary rock. Michael Oslan explained the terms of Geology clearly.
Most people are familiar with geology’s rock types: sandstone, shale, limestone, and granite. But what kinds of changes happen deep under the earth’s surface? A popular field of study is paleoecology, which looks into the relationship between climate and the evolution of our planet’s rocks. Geologists have identified many important trends in the Earth’s geological history, including plate tectonics, global cooling and volcano eruption.
One of the most common trends is the formation of mountain ranges and volcanoes. These mountains range from thousands of feet to tens of thousands of feet in height, and their surface can be blanketed in layers of dust and debris. Many volcanoes produce lava, which contains rich volcanic material like calcium carbonate, feldspar, and quartz. Because the composition of the lava is generally very similar to that of the earth, these minerals and crystals form into layered deposits all over the world. In turn, layers of these minerals form into new minerals, and new layers form and so on. These layers accumulate to a finished composition of iron sulfide, clay, and carbonates.
Another type of earth evidence found at rock strata is the presence of organic compounds. They may be in the form of mud cracks, mineral streaks, and sulfur crystals. Mud cracks are formed when layers of organic compounds split and move. Mineral streaks are formed when mineral particles move against a face of a rigid surface. The presence of sulfur crystals indicates that these substances are in the solid form, but they can easily become broken down and mixed with sediments that can form the core of a large river or lake beds.
Sedimentary rocks are generally divided into two categories: Precambrian (coarse-grained) and Tertiary (firm-irrigated). The composition of Precambrian rocks is dominated by iron and sulfur elements. On the other hand, the composition of Tertiary rocks is predominantly composed of silica, magnesium, boron, aluminum, and iron. The formation and movement of tectonic plates on the earth’s surface cause tectonic movements that create folds and ridges in the earth’s crust. Examples of such folds and ridges are shown on the map of the earth called the strata.
Geology uses the composition of the earth as one of its most powerful tools. In order to study tectonics, scientists have introduced a number of geologic terms that are commonly used. One of them is the unit of measurement known as the meter or tress per meter. Another commonly used unit of measurement is the centimeter or meter per meter. There are also other terms such as seismic, which refers to any occurrence that poses a threat or hazard to humans, and structural, which refers to the study of the earth’s structure. Aside from the terminologies used in the field of geology, the discipline itself is also well-known for its colorful description of the various geological features found on the earth.